Skills - trang 62 Unit 5 SGK tiếng anh 12 mới

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Cultural identity in modern society

1    Use a dictionary to find the meaning of the words or phrases in the box. Then complete the sentences with their correct form. (Sử dụng từ điển để tìm ra ý nghĩa của các từ hoặc cụm từ trong hộp. Sau đó hoàn thành câu với hình thức đúng của chúng.)

integrate           aspect

for granted       cultural identifier

  1. He had taken it__________ that his friend would tell the truth.
  2. ________ are characteristics shared by individuals belonging to the same group or community.
  3. When he studied abroad, he successfully ________ into the local culture.
  4. His book covers all _______ of a migrant's life.

Đáp án:

1. for granted    2. Cultural identifiers    3. integrated    4. aspects

2    Read the passage about cultural identity. Four sentences have been removed from the passage. Choose a sentence (a-d) to complete each gap (1-4). (Đọc đoạn văn về bản sắc văn hóa. Bốn câu đã được gỡ bỏ từ đoạn văn. Chọn một câu (a-d) để hoàn thành mỗi khoảng trống (1-4).)

a. On the other hand, there are people who choose to abandon their heritage culture and assimilate into the new culture of the majority.

b. Cultural identity is usually understood as the identity or feeling of belonging to a group that has its own culture.

c. However, people often do not confine themselves to one culture.

d. The first stage, known as unexamined cultural identity, occurs during childhood, when culture is taken for granted.

There are various studies on cultural identity. (1)___________________  . Individuals usually define themselves by cultural identifiers such as nationality, ethnicity, location, history, language, gender, beliefs, customs, clothing and food.

It is suggested that cultural identity develops in three stages. (2)__________________________ . Cultural ideas and values provided by families, communities or the media are easily accepted without much critical thinking. In the second stage, called the cultural identity search, teenagers may become more curious, and willing to explore, analyse and compare their beliefs with other cultures. When people develop a clear sense of cultural identity, know which social group they belong to and feel satisfied with their cultural identity, they reach the final stage called cultural identity achievement.

Living in their own country, people can easily acquire and maintain their cultural identity because they are fully exposed to different aspects of their native culture. They inherit their ancestors' history, knowledge, language, beliefs, values, and customs, which have been passed from one generation to the next one.

(3) ____________________ . In the age of globalisation, access to the Internet and the media provides instant contact with many cultures. A person's cultural identity may be influenced by certain aspects of other cultures.

When people move to a new culture, they may react differently. Some people feel a strong urge to keep their cultural identity, so they continue speaking their language, cooking their food, wearing their traditional clothing, and celebrating their festivals. They also insist that their children and grandchildren maintain their

cultural identity. (4) __________________________ . Yet, there are people who integrate into the new cultural environment while keeping their own cultural identity and flexibly adjusting to the different aspects of the new culture.

Đáp án: 1.b              2.d          3.c           4. a

3   Read the passage again and answer the questions.

  1. How do individuals define themselves?
  2. What happens in the first and the second stages of the formation of cultural identity?
  3. When do people reach the final stage?
  4. Why can people's cultural identity be affected by other cultures even if they live in their native country?
  5. What are the three ways people react when they move to a new culture?

Hướng dẫn:

Đọc bài lại lần nữa và trả lời các câu hỏi.

  1. They define themselves by (cultural identifiers such as) nationality, ethnicity, location, history, language, gender, beliefs, customs, clothing and food.
  2. In the first stage, children take culture for granted, and accept cultural ideas and values without much critical thinking. However, in the second stage, teenagers may become more curious, and willing to explore, analyse and compare their beliefs with other cultures.
  3. When they develop a clear sense of cultural identity, know which social group they belong to, and feel satisfied with their cultural identity.
  4. Because access to the Internet and the media provides instant contact with many cultures.
  5. First, they keep their cultural identity. Second, they assimilate into the new culture of the majority. Third, they integrate into the new cultural environment (keeping their cultural identity and flexibly adjusting to the different aspects of the new culture).

4   What should you do to develop your cultural identity in today's modern society? Discuss with a partner.

Bạn nên làm gì để phát triển bản sắc văn hóa của mình trong xã hội hiện đại ngày nay? Thảo luận với một người bạn.


Maintaining cultural identity

1   Work with a partner. Discuss and decide if activities (1-4) can help people to maintain their cultural identity. Match each of them with its reasons (a-d). (Làm việc cùng người bạn. Thảo luận và quyết định nếu hoạt động (1-4) có thể giúp mọi người để duy trì bản sắc văn hóa của họ. Khớp hoạt động với lý do của nó (a-d).)



1. preserving native language

a. represents national identities; reflects climatic conditions

2. wearing traditional clothing

b. gives big appetites and adequate nutrition; strengthens cultural ties

3. celebrating traditional holidays

c. develops intellectual abilities; shapes cultural identity

4. eating traditional food

d. offers a sense of being rooted in native culture; brings people together

Đáp án: 1.c    2.a    3.d    4.b

2   Use ideas in 1 to fill each of the numbered spaces in the following conversation. Then practise it in groups of three. (Sử dụng ý tưởng trong 1 để điền vào mỗi dấu cách được đánh số trong cuộc trò chuyện sau đây. Sau đó, luyện tập nó trong nhóm ba người.)

Hướng dẫn:

  1. preserve their native language
  2. cultural identity
  3. develop their intellectual abilities
  4. shape their cultural identity

3   Have a similar conversation discussing what you should do to maintain cultural identity in the age of globalisation.

Tạo một cuộc trò chuyện tương tự thảo luận về những gì bạn nên làm để duy trì bản sắc văn hoá trong thời đại toàn cầu hóa.


Cultural diversity in Singapore

1   You are going to listen to a talk about cultural diversity in Singapore. What do you know about this city-state? Look at the information below. Guess and write the name of each ethnic group in the blank. (Bạn sẽ nghe một cuộc nói chuyện về sự đa dạng văn hóa tại Singapore. Bạn biết gì về thành phố-bang này? Xem các thông tin dưới đây. Đoán và viết tên của từng dân tộc vào chỗ trống.)

Đáp án:

1. Eurasians and other

2 Indians

3. Malays      


2 Work in pairs. Discuss and match the national costumes with their names. (Làm việc theo cặp. Thảo luận và khớp trang phục dân tộc với tên của họ.)

  1. Indian sari
  2. Malay baju kurung
  3. Chinese cheongsam
  4. Malay baju melayu

Đáp án:

1.d              2. a              3.c             4. b

 3   Listen to a talk. What is the speaker about? Tick the correct boxes. (Nghe một cuộc nói chuyện. Người nói nói về là gì? Đánh dấu vào các ô đúng.)

Click tại đây để nghe:

  1. Singapore's ethnic groups and official languages
  2. Singapore's traditions and official languages
  3. Chinese wedding costumes in Singapore
  4. Malay traditional costumes for men and women
  5. Modern Indian costumes for men
  6. The Indian traditional dress

Đáp án: Người nói nói về 2, 4, 6

4   Listen again and complete the following sentences. Fill each blank with no more than four words or numbers. (Nghe một lần nữa và hoàn thành các câu sau. Điền vào mỗi chỗ trống với không quá bốn chữ hoặc số.)

Click tại đây để nghe:

Đáp án:

  1.  9 August 1965
  2. wear their traditional clothing
  3. Chinese men and women
  4. hung over the shoulder
  5. long-sleeved blouses
  6. as Singaporeans first

5  Work in pairs. Ask and answer the following question.

What else do you know about the city-country and its culture?

Hướng dẫn:

Làm việc theo cặp. Hỏi và trả lời câu hỏi sau đây.
Còn gì nữa làm bạn biết về các thành phố quốc gia và nền văn hóa của nó?

Audio script

Singapore gained its independence on 9 August 1965 and now has a population of more than five million people including Chinese, Malays, Indians and Eurasians. The country has four official languages: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. Singapore does not have a national costume, as people from the different ethnic groups tend to wear their traditional clothing.

The Chinese traditional attire for ladies is called cheongsam, which means a long garment. Originally, both men and women used to wear this long, one-piece dress specially designed to conceal the body shape. Today it's often worn by Chinese women in Singapore during Chinese New Year celebrations and at traditional wedding ceremonies.

For Malay men, the traditional garment is called baju melayu.

It consists of a loose shirt and a sarong worn over a pair of trousers. Malay women often wear baju kurung, which looks like a long- sleeved and collarless blouse worn over a long skirt.

The traditional dress for Indian women is thesari, which can be not only worn on special occasions, but used every day. It's a long piece of brightly-coloured cloth wrapped around the waist and hung over the shoulder. It's usually decorated with beautiful patterns.

Because of the hot temperatures and the modern character of Singapore, clothing is usually very casual and most people prefer western fashions. For business, men usually wear dark trousers, white shirts and a tie. Standard office attire for women includes a long-sleeved blouse with trousers or a skirt.

Unified by the common goal for a better future, the people of Singapore, especially the younger generations, think of themselves as Singaporeans first, and then as Chinese, Malay or Indian.


What makes me Vietnamese

1   Work in pairs. Give the reasons why language is often considered the most important cultural identifier.


Language is the most important cultural identifier because it allows me to communicate with my family and community.

Hướng dẫn:

Làm việc theo cặp. Đưa ra những lý do tại sao ngôn ngữ thường được coi là cách nhận dạng văn hóa quan trọng nhất.

Thí dụ:

Ngôn ngữ là cách nhận dạng văn hóa quan trọng nhất bởi vì nó cho phép tôi giao tiếp với gia đình và cộng đồng của tôi.

2   Read the following essay on language as defining a person's cultural identity. Complete the essay, using the correct form of the words in the box. (Đọc bài tiểu luận sau đây về ngôn ngữ như là cách xác định bản sắc văn hóa của một người. Hoàn thành bài tiểu luận, sử dụng hình thức đúng của các từ trong hộp.)

Đáp án:

1. expressing

2. demonstrated

3. features

4. unite

5. share

6. invaded

7. unifying

8. unique

3   Which is the most important cultural identifier or the feature that defines your cultural identity? First, discuss your ideas in groups of four. Then decide on the most important feature and write an essay of 180-250 words. 

You can choose one of the following cultural identifiers:

  • Festivals and cultural practices
  • Shared values and beliefs
  • Traditional food
  • History
  • Education

Hướng dẫn:

Đâu là cách nhận dạng văn hóa quan trọng nhất hoặc tính năng xác định bản sắc văn hóa của bạn? Đầu tiên, thảo luận về ý tưởng của bạn trong nhóm bốn người. Sau đó quyết định những tính năng quan trọng nhất và viết một bài luận trong 180-250 từ.
Bạn có thể chọn một trong các bộ nhận dạng văn hóa sau đây:
• Lễ hội và tập quán văn hóa
• giá trị và niềm tin chung
• Món ăn truyền thống
• Lịch sử
• Giáo dục

Gợi ý:

Some people believe cultural identity is how we identify ourselves as part of a culture.This can simply be done through the language we use, the food we often have, or the clothing we often wear on special occasions. In my opinion, festivals and cultural practices celebrated and preserved years after years are the most important cultural identifiers.

Through festivals, we want to express our unity as well as cultural identifier. Originally, festivals are special occasions when people at a particular place stop working in order to celebrate parties or events. They are often connected with religious beliefs of a specificgroupofpeopletothankGodsand ancestors for good harvests, fortune, and happiness.

Along with festivals, cultural practices are unique ways of expressing who we are and what country or culture we belong to. These are traditionally considered the right things to do in a community. For example, Vietnamese people usually go to pagodas on first days of New Year to pray for good health and happiness. Although we are now in modern time, these traditions are well preserved respectably as a cultural stereotype.

As people all over the world become closer and closer, we share our festivals and cultural practices -    the most important features. We organise international festivals and take part in various kinds of cultural events in other countries. This is always the meaningful way of identifying, sharing and preserving cultures.


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